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Citation techniques and styles

The aim of referencing is to let your readers know which sources you have used for your work.

There are several ways of referencing. A few of the most widely used styles are APA, Harvard and Vancouver. If you're not sure which style to use, please contact your department or teacher.

When using a reference management tool, such as Mendeley or EndNote, your references are presented automatically according to the citation style of your choice. You won't have to enter your references manually.

You can learn to interpret references and how to cite your sources correctly with this guide from Blekinge Institute of Technology Library: Referencing - how does it work?

Author instructions

When publishing in a scientific journal, consideration has to be taken to the style of referencing of the specific journal. This information is usually linked under Author instructions on the journal's web page.

Citation styles

AMA (American Medical Association)

AMA manual of style : a guide for authors and editors Bild på bok

American Medical Association (AMA) Style Guides

APA (American Psychological Association)

Concise rules of APA style Bild på bok

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association Bild på bok

APA Citation Style (Cornell University)


The bluebook : a uniform system of citation Bild på bok


Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide (University of Chicago)


Harvard (author-date) referencing guide (Central Queensland University)

Harvard style guide (Swinburne University of Technology)


IEEE Standards Style Manual (IEEE)

IEEE Style (Murdoch University Library)


The Vancouver style builds upon the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Citing Medicine - The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 2nd Edition 2007

Vancouver system (example references according to Vancouver, from National Library of Medicine, USA)

Vancouver style guide (Jönköping University Library) 

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Last updated: 2015-06-18