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Citation techniques and styles

The aim of referencing is to let your readers know which sources you have used for your work.

There are several ways of referencing. A few of the most widely used styles are APA, Harvard and Vancouver. If you're not sure which style to use, please contact your department or teacher.

You can learn to interpret references and how to cite your sources correctly with this guide from Blekinge Institute of Technology Library: Referencing - how does it work?

Citation styles

APA (American Psychological Association)

Concise rules of APA style Bild på bok

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association Bild på bok

APA Citation Style (Cornell University)


Harvard (author-date) referencing guide (Central Queensland University)

Harvard style guide (Swinburne University of Technology)


IEEE Standards Style Manual (IEEE)

IEEE Style (Murdoch University Library)


The Vancouver style builds upon the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Citing Medicine - The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 2nd Edition 2007

Vancouver system (example references according to Vancouver, from National Library of Medicine, USA)

Vancouver style guide (Jönköping University Library) 

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Last updated: 2015-10-21