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Analysis models

There are two different models of bibliometric analyses: citation analysis and analysis by the norwegian model.

Citation analysis

Basis for citation analysis

A citation analysis is based on publications in a citation database,  i.e. Web of Science (WoS), Scopus or Google Scholar.  Web of Science is the most widely used and established database for large scale analyses, and it is the database used for citation analyses at LiU (departments, research groups etc).

Coverage in WoS is very good for science and medicine, but poor for social sciences/humanities. This is illustrated by the graph, where the height of the bars indicates the coverage of the total publication output in a field. The poor coverage for some fields can be explained by their publication patterns.  WoS mainly covers international journals, whereas the social sciences and the humanities also publish in chapters, monographs and national journals.  When coverage is too low, a citation analysis has no relevance.

Coverage of publication for different subject areas in Web of Science

Source: Vetenskapsrådet (2009), Bibliometrisk indikator som underlag för medelsfördelning

Indicators in citation analysis

  1. Volume:

    • Number of publications and fractions

  2. Impact

    • Field normalized citation rate

    • Share of top 10%

    • Share of uncited publications

  3. Journal Quality

    • Field normalized journal citation rate

Indicators in citation analysisCitation analysis indicators 2


Norwegian model

The Norwegian model intends to measure both quantity and quality by acknowledging both the publication volume and the publication channels. Each publication receives a certain point dependending on whether it is published in a scientific channel (level 1) or a scientific channel considered leading in its field (level 2). Each year, the division of publication channel levels is revised by a publication committee of the Norwegian association of higher education institutions. Also, new publication channels are taken into consideration regularly.

Publication type

Level 1

Level 2










Point distribution in the Norwegian model

Basis for the Norwegian model

Publications published in a publication channel on the Norwegian list are included in the analysis. Since both journals and publishers are included in the list, the Norwegian list will have a higher coverage than citation databases. That is, the Norwegian model will be better suited for the humanities and parts of the social sciences that are often poorly covered in a citation analysis.

Indicators in the Norwegian model

  1. Volume:
    Number of publications and fractions

  2. Volume and quality:
    Publication points

  3. Quality of publication channels:
    Share of level 2 publications

Indicators in the Norwegian modelIndicators in the Norwegian model



 Further Reading

Swedish Research Council (2015) Guidelines for using bibliometrics at the Swedish Research Council


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Last updated: Wed Sep 19 14:46:48 CEST 2018